There are three main types of Microphone Directionality options Omnidirectional, Unidirectional, and noise canceling. Below gives a brief overview of each
Omnidirectional- These microphones will pick up sound and noise from all directions around of it pictures a full circle around it and anything in it will be picked up
Unidirectional- These are made to pick up sound more from one direction. In conclusion it will hear noise and be more sensitive to noise from the front side and ignore noise from back.
Noise Cancelling- This type actually picks up noise from the front and back of the microphone so it can use data to filter out false or extra noise.